镜像搬运工 skopeo

搬砖工具

作为公司内部 PaaS toB 产品的打包发布人员,容器镜像对我们打工人而言就像是工地上的砖头 🧱,而我的一部分工作就是将这些砖头在各个仓库之间搬来搬去,最终将这些砖头打包放在产品的安装包中,形成一个完整的 PaaS 产品安装包。

而选择一个好的搬砖工具能节省我们大量的人力和 CPU 算力,在日常开发工作中我们也常常会使用 docker push 和 docker pull 来推拉镜像,虽然本地 push && pull 一个镜像并不是什么难事儿,但对于一些特定的场景如产品打包发布流水线中,还继续再使用 docker 这个笨重的工具来推拉镜像的话,是十分费时费力的,具体的原理可以参考我之前写的博客《深入浅出容器镜像的一生🤔》。

自从 Kubernetes 1.20 之后,K8s 社区也弃用了 Docker 作为容器运行时,docker-shim 相关的代码将在 kubelet 中不再维护,随后掀起了一波去 docker 的浪潮。那么现在有没有一种能够替代 docker-cli 的工具来传输镜像呢?今天给大家介绍一个能够完全替代 docker-cli 来搬运镜像的工具:skopeo。这玩意儿比 docker-cli 高到不知道哪里去了!

安装方式

官方的安装方式参考安装文档即可 https://github.com/containers/skopeo/blob/main/install.md

由于我的 VPS 机器是 Ubuntu 1804 的 OS ,配置 apt 源并没成功,当场翻车。在官方的 Makefile 里只提供了在 nixos 下构建静态连接的方式,其他 Linux 发相版只能使用动态链接的方式来编译。但动态链接的方式通用性太差,比如在 ubuntu 18.04 上使用动态链接编译的 skopeo 只能在 ubuntu 上使用,无法在 centos 上使用。因为动态链接编译的二进制文件在不同的 OS 上所依赖的库文件是不一样的。所以还是另辟蹊径,亲自编译一个。

  • Clone repo
1
2
3
$ SKOPEO_VERSION=v1.3.0
$ git clone --branch ${SKOPEO_VERSION} https://github.com/containers/skopeo
$ cd skopeo
  • docker build
1
2
3
$ BUILD_IMAGE=nixos/nix:2.3.12
$ docker run --rm -t -v $PWD:/build ${BUILD_IMAGE} \
sh -c "cd /build && nix build -f nix && cp ./result/bin/skopeo skopeo"
  • 使用 nixos/nix:2.3.12 来构建静态链接的 skopeo 二进制文件需要完整构建 skopeo 所有的依赖,比如 glibc、systemd、golang 等,所以构建十分耗时。在一台 4c8G 的机器上构建用了将近半个小时,在 GitHub Action 的 runner 机器上构建需要将近一个小时

img

  • 使用 GitHub Action 构建
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
---
name: build static binary
on: push
jobs:
build:
runs-on: ubuntu-latest
env:
BUILD_IMAGE: "nixos/nix:2.3.12"
steps:
- name: Checkout
uses: actions/[email protected]

- name: Build static binary
run: |
docker run --rm -t -v $PWD:/build --name builder ${BUILD_IMAGE} \
sh -c "cd /build && nix build -f nix && cp ./result/bin/skopeo skopeo-linux-amd64"

- name: Release
uses: softprops/[email protected]
env:
GITHUB_TOKEN: ${{ secrets.GITHUB_TOKEN }}
with:
files: skopeo-linux-amd64

不过也可以使用 go build 的方式构建出静态链接的二进制文件,如下 Dockerfile

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
FROM golang:1.14-buster as skopeo-builder
ARG SKOPEO_VERSION=v1.2.0
RUN apt-get update \
&& apt-get install -y -qq libdevmapper-dev libgpgme11-dev
ENV GOPATH=/
WORKDIR /src/github.com/containers/skopeo
RUN git clone --branch ${SKOPEO_VERSION} https://github.com/containers/skopeo . \
&& CGO_ENABLE=0 GO111MODULE=on go build -mod=vendor "-buildmode=pie" -ldflags '-extldflags "-static"' -gcflags "" \
-tags "exclude_graphdriver_devicemapper exclude_graphdriver_btrfs containers_image_openpgp" -o /usr/bin/skopeo ./cmd/skopeo
FROM alpine:3.12
COPY --from=skopeo-builder /usr/bin/skopeo /usr/bin/skopeo
# FROM scratch
# COPY --from=skopeo-builder /usr/bin/skopeo /skopeo
# DOCKER_BUILDKIT=1 docker build -o type=local,dest=$PWD -f Dockerfile .
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
---
name: build static binary
on:
push:
tags:
- 'v*'
env:
BUILDER_IMAGE: ghcr.io/k8sli/nixos-nix:v2.3.12

jobs:
build-linux-amd64:
runs-on: ubuntu-latest
env:
ARCH: "amd64"
steps:
- name: Checkout
uses: actions/[email protected]

- name: Set up QEMU
uses: docker/[email protected]

- name: Set up Docker Buildx
uses: docker/[email protected]

- name: Build skopeo binary file
run: |
DIGEST=$(skopeo --insecure-policy --override-arch ${ARCH} inspect docker://${BUILDER_IMAGE} | jq -r '.Digest')
docker run --rm -t -v $PWD:/build ${BUILDER_IMAGE}@${DIGEST} \
sh -c "cd /build && nix build -f nix && cp ./result/bin/skopeo skopeo-linux-${{ env.ARCH }}"
- name: Upload binary artifact
uses: actions/[email protected]
with:
path: skopeo-linux-${{ env.ARCH }}
name: skopeo-binary-${{ github.run_number }}-${{ env.ARCH }}

build-linux-arm64:
runs-on: ubuntu-latest
env:
ARCH: "arm64"
steps:
- name: Checkout
uses: actions/[email protected]

- name: Set up QEMU
uses: docker/[email protected]

- name: Set up Docker Buildx
uses: docker/[email protected]

- name: Build skopeo binary file
run: |
DIGEST=$(skopeo --insecure-policy --override-arch ${ARCH} inspect docker://${BUILDER_IMAGE} | jq -r '.Digest')
docker run --rm -t -v $PWD:/build ${BUILDER_IMAGE}@${DIGEST} \
sh -c "cd /build && nix build -f nix && cp ./result/bin/skopeo skopeo-linux-${{ env.ARCH }}"
- name: Upload binary artifact
uses: actions/[email protected]
with:
path: skopeo-linux-${{ env.ARCH }}
name: skopeo-binary-${{ github.run_number }}-${{ env.ARCH }}

release:
runs-on: ubuntu-latest
needs: [build-linux-amd64,build-linux-arm64]
steps:
- name: Download artifact from build-linux-amd64
uses: actions/[email protected]
with:
name: skopeo-binary-${{ github.run_number }}-amd64

- name: Download artifact from build-linux-arm64
uses: actions/[email protected]
with:
name: skopeo-binary-${{ github.run_number }}-arm64

- name: Release and upload binary files
uses: softprops/[email protected]
env:
GITHUB_TOKEN: ${{ secrets.GITHUB_TOKEN }}
with:
files: |
skopeo-linux-amd64
skopeo-linux-arm64

上手体验

  • copy:复制一个镜像从 A 到 B,这里的 A 和 B 可以为本地 docker 镜像或者 registry 上的镜像;
  • inspect:查看一个镜像的 manifest 或者 image config 详细信息;
  • delete:删除一个镜像 tag,可以是本地 docker 镜像或者 registry 上的镜像;
  • list-tags:列出一个 registry 上某个镜像的所有 tag;
  • login:登录到某个 registry,和 docker login 类似;
  • logout: 退出已经登录到某个 registry 的 auth 信息,和 docker logout 类似;
  • manifest-digest:几圈一个文件的 sha256sum 值;
  • standalone-sign、standalone-verify 这两个是和镜像加密相关的,使用的不是很多;
  • sync:同步一个镜像从 A 到 B,感觉和 copy 一样,但 sync 支持的参数更多,功能更强大;
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
completion             generate the autocompletion script for the specified shell
copy Copy an IMAGE-NAME from one location to another
delete Delete image IMAGE-NAME
help Help about any command
inspect Inspect image IMAGE-NAME
list-tags List tags in the transport/repository specified by the REPOSITORY-NAME
login Login to a container registry
logout Logout of a container registry
manifest-digest Compute a manifest digest of a file
standalone-sign Create a signature using local files
standalone-verify Verify a signature using local files
sync Synchronize one or more images

参数

  • command-timeout:命令超时时间
  • debug:开启 debug 模式,输出详细的日志
  • insecure-policy: 使用非安全的 policy,如果没有配置 policy 的话,需要加上该参数
  • override-arch:处理镜像时覆盖客户端 CPU 体系架构,如在 amd64 的机器上用 skopeo 处理 arm64 的镜像
  • override-os: 处理镜像时覆盖客户端 OS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Flags:
--command-timeout duration timeout for the command execution
--debug enable debug output
-h, --help help for skopeo
--insecure-policy run the tool without any policy check
--override-arch ARCH use ARCH instead of the architecture of the machine for choosing images
--override-os OS use OS instead of the running OS for choosing images
--override-variant VARIANT use VARIANT instead of the running architecture variant for choosing images
--policy string Path to a trust policy file
--registries.d DIR use registry configuration files in DIR (e.g. for container signature storage)
--tmpdir string directory used to store temporary files
-v, --version Version for Skopeo

一下是我在使用 skopeo 命令时候的一些参数

1
--insecure-policy --src-tls-verify=false --dest-tls-verify=false

IMAGE NAMES 镜像格式🤔️

在使用 skopeo 之前,我们首先要知道在命令行中镜像的格式,下面是官方详细的文档格式。无论我们的 src 镜像还是 dest 镜像都要满足以下格式才可以。

Most commands refer to container images, using a transport:details format. The following formats are supported:

containers-storage:*docker-reference* An image located in a local containers/storage image store. Both the location and image store are specified in /etc/containers/storage.conf. (Backend for Podman, CRI-O, Buildah and friends)

dir:*path* An existing local directory path storing the manifest, layer tarballs and signatures as individual files. This is a non-standardized format, primarily useful for debugging or noninvasive container inspection.

docker://*docker-reference* An image in a registry implementing the “Docker Registry HTTP API V2”. By default, uses the authorization state in either $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR/containers/auth.json, which is set using (skopeo login). If the authorization state is not found there, $HOME/.docker/config.json is checked, which is set using (docker login).

docker-archive:*path***[:*docker-reference] An image is stored in the docker save formatted file. *docker-reference is only used when creating such a file, and it must not contain a digest.

docker-daemon:*docker-reference* An image docker-reference stored in the docker daemon internal storage. docker-reference must contain either a tag or a digest. Alternatively, when reading images, the format can be docker-daemon:algo:digest (an image ID).

oci:*path:tag* An image tag in a directory compliant with “Open Container Image Layout Specification” at path.

需要注意的是,这几种镜像的名字,对应着镜像存在的方式,不同存在的方式对镜像的 layer 处理的方式也不一样,比如 docker:// 这种方式是存在 registry 上的,docker-daemon: 是存在本地 docker pull 下来的,再比如 docker-archive 是通过 docker save 出来的镜像。同一个镜像有这几种存在的方式就像水分子有气体、液体、固体一样。可以这样去理解,他们表述的都是同一个镜像,只不过是存在的方式不一样而已。

IMAGE NAMES(镜像格式)examplecontainers-storage:containers-storage:dir:dir:/PATHdocker://docker://k8s.gcr.io/kube-apiserver:v1.17.5docker-daemon:docker-daemon:alpine:latestdocker-archive:docker-archive:alpine.tar (docker save)oci:oci:alpine:latest

skopeo login

在使用 skopeo 前如果 src 或 dest 镜像是在 registry 中的,如果非 public 的镜像需要相应的 auth 认证,可以使用 docker login 或者 skopeo login 的方式登录到 registry,生成如下格式的 registry 登录配置文件。

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
$ jq "." ~/.docker/config.json
{
"auths": {
"https://index.docker.io/v1/": {
"auth": "d2sdwdaqWMasss7bSVlJFpmQE43Sw=="
}
},
"HttpHeaders": {
"User-Agent": "Docker-Client/19.03.5 (linux)"
},
"experimental": "enabled"
}

skopeo copy

Copy an IMAGE-NAME from one location to another

将一个镜像从 A 复制到 B

注意一下,这里的 location 就是指的上面提到的 IMAGE NAMES ,也就是说 skopeo copy src dest 可以有6*6=36 种组合!比如我可以将一个镜像从一个 registry 复制到另一个 registry:skopeo copy docker://IMAGE_NAME docker://IMAGE_NAME;或者将一个镜像从 registry 中复制到一个本地目录 skopeo copy docker://k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.3 dir:pause:3.3

  • 从 regsitry A 到 registry B 复制镜像
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
$ skopeo copy docker://k8s.gcr.io/kube-apiserver:v1.17.5 docker://hub.k8s.li/kube-apiserver:v1.17.5 --dest-authfile /root/.docker/config.json
Getting image source signatures
Copying blob 597de8ba0c30 done
Copying blob e13a88fa950c done
Copying config f640481f6d done
Writing manifest to image destination
Storing signatures

skopeo 输出的日志显示是 Copying blob 597de8ba0c30 done.可以看到 skopeo 是直接从 registry 中 copy 镜像 layer 的 blob 文件,传输是镜像在 registry 中存储的原始格式。

  • 将镜像从 registry 复制到本地目录
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
$ skopeo copy docker://k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.3 dir:pause:3.3
Getting image source signatures
Copying blob aeab776c4837 done
Copying config 0184c1613d done
Writing manifest to image destination
Storing signatures
$ tree pause:3.3
pause:3.3
├── 0184c1613d92931126feb4c548e5da11015513b9e4c104e7305ee8b53b50a9da
├── aeab776c48375e1a61810a0a5f59e982e34425ff505a01c2b57dcedc6799c17b
├── manifest.json
└── version

# 查看镜像的 manifest 文件

$ jq '.' pause:3.3/manifest.json
{
"schemaVersion": 2,
"mediaType": "application/vnd.docker.distribution.manifest.v2+json",
"config": {
"mediaType": "application/vnd.docker.container.image.v1+json",
"size": 743,
"digest": "sha256:0184c1613d92931126feb4c548e5da11015513b9e4c104e7305ee8b53b50a9da"
},
"layers": [
{
"mediaType": "application/vnd.docker.image.rootfs.diff.tar.gzip",
"size": 296517,
"digest": "sha256:aeab776c48375e1a61810a0a5f59e982e34425ff505a01c2b57dcedc6799c17b"
}
]
}

# 根据 manifest 文件查看镜像的 image config 文件

$ jq '.' pause:3.3/0184c1613d92931126feb4c548e5da11015513b9e4c104e7305ee8b53b50a9da

{
"architecture": "amd64",
"config": {
"Env": [
"PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin"
],
"Entrypoint": [
"/pause"
],
"WorkingDir": "/",
"OnBuild": null
},
"created": "2020-05-02T09:46:29.068489061Z",
"history": [
{
"created": "2020-05-02T09:46:29.068489061Z",
"created_by": "ARG ARCH",
"comment": "buildkit.dockerfile.v0",
"empty_layer": true
},
{
"created": "2020-05-02T09:46:29.068489061Z",
"created_by": "ADD bin/pause-amd64 /pause # buildkit",
"comment": "buildkit.dockerfile.v0"
},
{
"created": "2020-05-02T09:46:29.068489061Z",
"created_by": "ENTRYPOINT [\"/pause\"]",
"comment": "buildkit.dockerfile.v0",
"empty_layer": true
}
],
"os": "linux",
"rootfs": {
"type": "layers",
"diff_ids": [
"sha256:48a5e87615149095fad57d5db80f2cd9728b5562900eccb32842a45e8e8a61ae"
]
}
}
  • 将镜像从 registry 复制到本地目录,以 OCI 格式保存
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
$ skopeo copy docker://k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.3 oci:images
Getting image source signatures
Copying blob aeab776c4837 done
Copying config fa5df7713f done
Writing manifest to image destination
Storing signatures
$ tree images
images
├── blobs
│ └── sha256
│ ├── 3450ba84b8fbfd12cbf58710c0b5678f4311a888d4d5c42b053faefa1af4f8be
│ ├── aeab776c48375e1a61810a0a5f59e982e34425ff505a01c2b57dcedc6799c17b
│ └── fa5df7713fc78f96e377d236b353d33815073105bbacd381e50705e576ce4da5
├── index.json
└── oci-layout
  • 替代 docker push 功能,将镜像从 docker 本地存储 push 到 registry 中
1
2
3
4
5
6
$ skopeo copy docker-daemon:alpine:3.12 docker://hub.k8s.li/library/alpine:3.12
Getting image source signatures
Copying blob 32f366d666a5 done
Copying config 13621d1b12 done
Writing manifest to image destination
Storing signatures

skopeo sync

Skopeo sync 的功能基本上等同于阿里云的 image-syncer 工具,不过个人觉着 skopeo 要比 image-syncer 更强大,灵活性更强一些,汝还在使用 image-syncer 的话,强烈建议你使用 skopeo sync 替代它😂。

  • skopeo sync 镜像同步文件
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
registry.example.com:
images:
busybox: []
redis:
- "1.0"
- "2.0"
- "sha256:111111"
images-by-tag-regex:
nginx: ^1\.13\.[12]-alpine-perl$
credentials:
username: john
password: this is a secret
tls-verify: true
cert-dir: /home/john/certs
quay.io:
tls-verify: false
images:
coreos/etcd:
- latest
  • Image-syncer 镜像同步配置文件
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
# registry 登录配置

{
"quay.io": { // This "registry" or "registry/namespace" string should be the same as registry or registry/namespace used below in "images" field.
// The format of "registry/namespace" will be more prior matched than "registry"
"username": "xxx",
"password": "xxxxxxxxx",
"insecure": true // "insecure" field needs to be true if this registry is a http service, default value is false, version of image-syncer need to be later than v1.0.1 to support this field
},
"registry.cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com": {
"username": "xxx",
"password": "xxxxxxxxx"
},
"registry.hub.docker.com": {
"username": "xxx",
"password": "xxxxxxxxxx"
},
"quay.io/coreos": { // "registry/namespace" format is supported after v1.0.3 of image-syncer
"username": "abc",
"password": "xxxxxxxxx",
"insecure": true
}
}
# 镜像配置
{
"quay.io/coreos/kube-rbac-proxy": "quay.io/ruohe/kube-rbac-proxy",
"xxxx":"xxxxx",
"xxx/xxx/xx:tag1,tag2,tag3":"xxx/xxx/xx"
}
  • 将镜从 registry A 同步到 registry B
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
$ skopeo sync --src docker --dest docker k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.3 hub.k8s.li
INFO[0000] Tag presence check imagename="k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.3" tagged=true
INFO[0000] Copying image tag 1/1 from="docker://k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.3" to="docker://hub.k8s.li/pause:3.3"
Getting image source signatures
Copying blob aeab776c4837 done
Copying config 0184c1613d done
Writing manifest to image destination
Storing signatures
INFO[0000] Synced 1 images from 1 sources
  • 将一个镜像从 registry 中同步到本地目录
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
$ skopeo sync --src docker --dest dir k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.3 images
images
└── pause:3.3
├── 0184c1613d92931126feb4c548e5da11015513b9e4c104e7305ee8b53b50a9da
├── aeab776c48375e1a61810a0a5f59e982e34425ff505a01c2b57dcedc6799c17b
├── manifest.json
└── version
  • 将镜像从本地目录同步到 registry 中
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
$ skopeo sync --src dir --dest docker images hub.k8s.li
INFO[0000] Copying image ref 1/1 from="dir:images/pause:3.3" to="docker://hub.k8s.li/pause:3.3"
Getting image source signatures
Copying blob aeab776c4837 [--------------------------------------] 0.0b / 0.0b
Copying config 0184c1613d done
Writing manifest to image destination
Storing signatures
INFO[0002] Synced 1 images from 1 sources

skopeo inspect

这个命令可以查看一个镜像的 image config 或者 manifests 文件,和 docker inspect 命令差不多。不加 –raw 参数默认是查看镜像的 image config 文件,加上 –raw 参数就是查看镜像的 manifest 文件。

  • 查看 docker 本地存储中的一个镜像的 image config 文件
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
$ skopeo inspect docker-daemon:alpine:latest
{
"Name": "docker.io/library/alpine",
"Digest": "sha256:ab84514e85b179ff569fd0042969b04f68812f23e187a927cb84664b417e0d3e",
"RepoTags": [],
"Created": "2021-04-14T19:19:49.594730611Z",
"DockerVersion": "19.03.12",
"Labels": null,
"Architecture": "amd64",
"Os": "linux",
"Layers": [
"sha256:32f366d666a541852cad754ee1cdb53a736110b550f0c2d5a46bc5ba519896b6"
],
"Env": [
"PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin"
]
}
  • 查看 registry 中一个镜像的 manifests 文件,可以通过这种方式来判断镜像是否存在
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
skopeo inspect docker://alpine:latest --raw | jq '.'

{
"manifests": [
{
"digest": "sha256:1775bebec23e1f3ce486989bfc9ff3c4e951690df84aa9f926497d82f2ffca9d",
"mediaType": "application/vnd.docker.distribution.manifest.v2+json",
"platform": {
"architecture": "amd64",
"os": "linux"
},
"size": 528
},
{
"digest": "sha256:1f66b8f3041ef8575260056dedd437ed94e7bfeea142ee39ff0d795f94ff2287",
"mediaType": "application/vnd.docker.distribution.manifest.v2+json",
"platform": {
"architecture": "arm",
"os": "linux",
"variant": "v6"
},
"size": 528
},
{
"digest": "sha256:8d99168167baa6a6a0d7851b9684625df9c1455116a9601835c2127df2aaa2f5",
"mediaType": "application/vnd.docker.distribution.manifest.v2+json",
"platform": {
"architecture": "arm",
"os": "linux",
"variant": "v7"
},
"size": 528
},
{
"digest": "sha256:53b74ddfc6225e3c8cc84d7985d0f34666e4e8b0b6892a9b2ad1f7516bc21b54",
"mediaType": "application/vnd.docker.distribution.manifest.v2+json",
"platform": {
"architecture": "arm64",
"os": "linux",
"variant": "v8"
},
"size": 528
},
{
"digest": "sha256:52a197664c8ed0b4be6d3b8372f1d21f3204822ba432583644c9ce07f7d6448f",
"mediaType": "application/vnd.docker.distribution.manifest.v2+json",
"platform": {
"architecture": "386",
"os": "linux"
},
"size": 528
},
{
"digest": "sha256:b421672fe4e74a3c7eff2775736e854d69e8d38b2c337063f8699de9c408ddd3",
"mediaType": "application/vnd.docker.distribution.manifest.v2+json",
"platform": {
"architecture": "ppc64le",
"os": "linux"
},
"size": 528
},
{
"digest": "sha256:8a22269106a31264874cc3a719c1e280e76d42dff1fa57bd9c7fe68dab574023",
"mediaType": "application/vnd.docker.distribution.manifest.v2+json",
"platform": {
"architecture": "s390x",
"os": "linux"
},
"size": 528
}
],
"mediaType": "application/vnd.docker.distribution.manifest.list.v2+json",
"schemaVersion": 2
}

skopeo delete

使用这个命令可以删除镜像 tag。需要注意的是,通过 registry API 来删除镜像的 tag 仅仅是删除了 tag 对 manifests 文件的引用,并非真正将镜像删除掉。如果想要删除镜像的 layer 还是需要通过 registry GC 的方式,可参考之前写过的一篇博客《docker registry GC 原理分析

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
$ skopeo delete docker://hub.k8s.li/library/pause:3.2 --debug
DEBU[0000] Returning credentials from /home/release/.docker/config.json
DEBU[0000] Using registries.d directory /etc/containers/registries.d for sigstore configuration
DEBU[0000] No signature storage configuration found for hub.k8s.li/library/pause:3.2
DEBU[0000] Looking for TLS certificates and private keys in /etc/docker/certs.d/hub.k8s.li/library
DEBU[0000] Loading registries configuration "/etc/containers/registries.conf"
DEBU[0000] GET https://hub.k8s.li/library/v2/
DEBU[0000] Ping https://hub.k8s.li/library/v2/ status 401
DEBU[0000] GET https://hub.k8s.li/library/v2/library/pause/manifests/3.2
DEBU[0000] DELETE https://hub.k8s.li/library/v2/library/pause/manifests/sha256:4a1c4b21597c1b4415bdbecb28a3296c6b5e23ca4f9feeb599860a1dac6a0108

skopeo list-tags

这个命令可用于列出 registry 上的某个镜像的所有 tag ,使用标准的 registry API 来获取镜像 tag

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
$ skopeo list-tags docker://k8s.gcr.io/pause
{
"Repository": "k8s.gcr.io/pause",
"Tags": [
"0.8.0",
"1.0",
"2.0",
"3.0",
"3.1",
"3.2",
"3.3",
"3.4.1",
"3.5",
"go",
"latest",
"test",
"test2"
]
}

最佳实践

一下给出几个 skopeo 工具的最佳实践 😊

镜像同步

假如给你一个镜像列表,如 https://github.com/kubesphere/ks-installer/blob/master/scripts/images-list.txt。如何将它快速地从一个 registry 同步到另一个 registry 中呢?还是 skopeo copy 走起!

  • images-list.txt
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
##k8s-images
kubesphere/kube-apiserver:v1.20.6
kubesphere/kube-scheduler:v1.20.6
kubesphere/kube-proxy:v1.20.6
kubesphere/kube-controller-manager:v1.20.6
kubesphere/kube-apiserver:v1.19.8
kubesphere/kube-scheduler:v1.19.8
kubesphere/kube-proxy:v1.19.8
kubesphere/kube-controller-manager:v1.19.8
kubesphere/kube-apiserver:v1.19.9
kubesphere/kube-scheduler:v1.19.9
kubesphere/kube-proxy:v1.19.9
kubesphere/kube-controller-manager:v1.19.9
kubesphere/kube-apiserver:v1.18.8
kubesphere/kube-scheduler:v1.18.8
kubesphere/kube-proxy:v1.18.8
kubesphere/kube-controller-manager:v1.18.8
kubesphere/kube-apiserver:v1.17.9
kubesphere/kube-scheduler:v1.17.9
kubesphere/kube-proxy:v1.17.9
kubesphere/kube-controller-manager:v1.17.9
kubesphere/pause:3.1
kubesphere/pause:3.2
kubesphere/etcd:v3.4.13
calico/cni:v3.16.3
calico/kube-controllers:v3.16.3
calico/node:v3.16.3
calico/pod2daemon-flexvol:v3.16.3
calico/typha:v3.16.3
kubesphere/flannel:v0.12.0
coredns/coredns:1.6.9
kubesphere/k8s-dns-node-cache:1.15.12
openebs/provisioner-localpv:2.10.1
openebs/linux-utils:2.10.0
kubesphere/nfs-client-provisioner:v3.1.0-k8s1.11
##csi-images
csiplugin/csi-neonsan:v1.2.0
csiplugin/csi-neonsan-ubuntu:v1.2.0
csiplugin/csi-neonsan-centos:v1.2.0
csiplugin/csi-provisioner:v1.5.0
csiplugin/csi-attacher:v2.1.1
csiplugin/csi-resizer:v0.4.0
csiplugin/csi-snapshotter:v2.0.1
csiplugin/csi-node-driver-registrar:v1.2.0
csiplugin/csi-qingcloud:v1.2.0
##kubesphere-images
kubesphere/ks-apiserver:v3.1.1
kubesphere/ks-console:v3.1.1
kubesphere/ks-controller-manager:v3.1.1
kubesphere/ks-installer:v3.1.1
kubesphere/kubectl:v1.20.0
kubesphere/kubectl:v1.19.0
redis:5.0.12-alpine
alpine:3.14
haproxy:2.0.22-alpine
nginx:1.14-alpine
minio/minio:RELEASE.2019-08-07T01-59-21Z
minio/mc:RELEASE.2019-08-07T23-14-43Z
mirrorgooglecontainers/defaultbackend-amd64:1.4
kubesphere/nginx-ingress-controller:v0.35.0
osixia/openldap:1.3.0
csiplugin/snapshot-controller:v3.0.3
kubesphere/kubefed:v0.7.0
kubesphere/tower:v0.2.0
kubesphere/prometheus-config-reloader:v0.42.1
kubesphere/prometheus-operator:v0.42.1
prom/alertmanager:v0.21.0
prom/prometheus:v2.26.0
prom/node-exporter:v0.18.1
kubesphere/ks-alerting-migration:v3.1.0
jimmidyson/configmap-reload:v0.3.0
kubesphere/notification-manager-operator:v1.0.0
kubesphere/notification-manager:v1.0.0
kubesphere/metrics-server:v0.4.2
kubesphere/kube-rbac-proxy:v0.8.0
kubesphere/kube-state-metrics:v1.9.7
openebs/provisioner-localpv:2.3.0
thanosio/thanos:v0.18.0
grafana/grafana:7.4.3
##kubesphere-logging-images
kubesphere/elasticsearch-oss:6.7.0-1
kubesphere/elasticsearch-curator:v5.7.6
kubesphere/fluentbit-operator:v0.5.0
kubesphere/fluentbit-operator:migrator
kubesphere/fluent-bit:v1.6.9
elastic/filebeat:6.7.0
kubesphere/kube-auditing-operator:v0.1.2
kubesphere/kube-auditing-webhook:v0.1.2
kubesphere/kube-events-exporter:v0.1.0
kubesphere/kube-events-operator:v0.1.0
kubesphere/kube-events-ruler:v0.2.0
kubesphere/log-sidecar-injector:1.1
docker:19.03
##istio-images
istio/pilot:1.6.10
istio/proxyv2:1.6.10
jaegertracing/jaeger-agent:1.17
jaegertracing/jaeger-collector:1.17
jaegertracing/jaeger-es-index-cleaner:1.17
jaegertracing/jaeger-operator:1.17.1
jaegertracing/jaeger-query:1.17
kubesphere/kiali:v1.26.1
kubesphere/kiali-operator:v1.26.1
##kubesphere-devops-images
kubesphere/ks-jenkins:2.249.1
jenkins/jnlp-slave:3.27-1
kubesphere/s2ioperator:v3.1.0
kubesphere/s2irun:v2.1.1
kubesphere/builder-base:v3.1.0
kubesphere/builder-nodejs:v3.1.0
kubesphere/builder-maven:v3.1.0
kubesphere/builder-go:v3.1.0
kubesphere/s2i-binary:v2.1.0
kubesphere/tomcat85-java11-centos7:v2.1.0
kubesphere/tomcat85-java11-runtime:v2.1.0
kubesphere/tomcat85-java8-centos7:v2.1.0
kubesphere/tomcat85-java8-runtime:v2.1.0
kubesphere/java-11-centos7:v2.1.0
kubesphere/java-8-centos7:v2.1.0
kubesphere/java-8-runtime:v2.1.0
kubesphere/java-11-runtime:v2.1.0
kubesphere/nodejs-8-centos7:v2.1.0
kubesphere/nodejs-6-centos7:v2.1.0
kubesphere/nodejs-4-centos7:v2.1.0
kubesphere/python-36-centos7:v2.1.0
kubesphere/python-35-centos7:v2.1.0
kubesphere/python-34-centos7:v2.1.0
kubesphere/python-27-centos7:v2.1.0
##openpitrix-images
kubespheredev/openpitrix-jobs:v3.1.1
##weave-scope-images
weaveworks/scope:1.13.0
##kubeedge-images
kubeedge/cloudcore:v1.6.2
kubesphere/edge-watcher:v0.1.0
kubesphere/kube-rbac-proxy:v0.5.0
kubesphere/edge-watcher-agent:v0.1.0
##example-images-images
kubesphere/examples-bookinfo-productpage-v1:1.16.2
kubesphere/examples-bookinfo-reviews-v1:1.16.2
kubesphere/examples-bookinfo-reviews-v2:1.16.2
kubesphere/examples-bookinfo-reviews-v3:1.16.2
kubesphere/examples-bookinfo-details-v1:1.16.2
kubesphere/examples-bookinfo-ratings-v1:1.16.3
busybox:1.31.1
joosthofman/wget:1.0
kubesphere/netshoot:v1.0
nginxdemos/hello:plain-text
wordpress:4.8-apache
mirrorgooglecontainers/hpa-example:latest
java:openjdk-8-jre-alpine
fluent/fluentd:v1.4.2-2.0
perl:latest
  • sync.sh
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
#!/bin/bash
GREEN_COL="\\033[32;1m"
RED_COL="\\033[1;31m"
NORMAL_COL="\\033[0;39m"
SOURCE_REGISTRY=$1
TARGET_REGISTRY=$2
: ${IMAGES_LIST_FILE:="images-list.txt"}
: ${TARGET_REGISTRY:="hub.k8s.li"}
: ${SOURCE_REGISTRY:="docker.io"}

BLOBS_PATH="docker/registry/v2/blobs/sha256"
REPO_PATH="docker/registry/v2/repositories"
set -eo pipefail

CURRENT_NUM=0
ALL_IMAGES="$(sed -n '/#/d;s/:/:/p' ${IMAGES_LIST_FILE} | sort -u)"
TOTAL_NUMS=$(echo "${ALL_IMAGES}" | wc -l)

skopeo_copy() {
if skopeo copy --insecure-policy --src-tls-verify=false --dest-tls-verify=false \
--override-arch amd64 --override-os linux -q docker://$1 docker://$2; then
echo -e "$GREEN_COL Progress: ${CURRENT_NUM}/${TOTAL_NUMS} sync $1 to $2 successful $NORMAL_COL"
else
echo -e "$RED_COL Progress: ${CURRENT_NUM}/${TOTAL_NUMS} sync $1 to $2 failed $NORMAL_COL"
exit 2
fi
}

for image in ${ALL_IMAGES}; do
let CURRENT_NUM=${CURRENT_NUM}+1
skopeo_copy ${SOURCE_REGISTRY}/${image} ${TARGET_REGISTRY}/${image}
done
  • bash sync.sh docker.io ``localhost:5000
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
$ bash sync.sh docker.io localhost:5000
Progress: 1/143 sync docker.io/alpine:3.14 to localhost:5000/alpine:3.14 successful
Progress: 2/143 sync docker.io/busybox:1.31.1 to localhost:5000/busybox:1.31.1 successful
Progress: 3/143 sync docker.io/calico/cni:v3.16.3 to localhost:5000/calico/cni:v3.16.3 successful
Progress: 4/143 sync docker.io/calico/kube-controllers:v3.16.3 to localhost:5000/calico/kube-controllers:v3.16.3 successful
Progress: 141/143 sync docker.io/thanosio/thanos:v0.18.0 to localhost:5000/thanosio/thanos:v0.18.0 successful
Progress: 142/143 sync docker.io/weaveworks/scope:1.13.0 to localhost:5000/weaveworks/scope:1.13.0 successful
Progress: 143/143 sync docker.io/wordpress:4.8-apache to localhost:5000/wordpress:4.8-apache successful

使用 registry 存储特性

将镜像从 registry 中同步到本地目录,使用 registry 存储的特性,将本地目录中的镜像转换成 registry 存储的格式。这样子的好处就是可以去除一些 skopeo dir 中重复的 layers,减少镜像的总大小。具体的原理可以参考我之前写过的 《如何使用 registry 存储的特性

  • sync.sh
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
#!/bin/bash
GREEN_COL="\\033[32;1m"
RED_COL="\\033[1;31m"
NORMAL_COL="\\033[0;39m"
SOURCE_REGISTRY=$1
TARGET_REGISTRY=$2
IMAGES_DIR=$2
: ${IMAGES_DIR:="images"}
: ${IMAGES_LIST_FILE:="images-list.txt"}
: ${TARGET_REGISTRY:="hub.k8s.li"}
: ${SOURCE_REGISTRY:="docker.io"}
BLOBS_PATH="docker/registry/v2/blobs/sha256"
REPO_PATH="docker/registry/v2/repositories"
set -eo pipefail
CURRENT_NUM=0
ALL_IMAGES="$(sed -n '/#/d;s/:/:/p' ${IMAGES_LIST_FILE} | sort -u)"
TOTAL_NUMS=$(echo "${ALL_IMAGES}" | wc -l)
skopeo_sync() {
if skopeo sync --insecure-policy --src-tls-verify=false --dest-tls-verify=false \
--override-arch amd64 --override-os linux --src docker --dest dir $1 $2 > /dev/null; then
echo -e "$GREEN_COL Progress: ${CURRENT_NUM}/${TOTAL_NUMS} sync $1 to $2 successful $NORMAL_COL"
else
echo -e "$RED_COL Progress: ${CURRENT_NUM}/${TOTAL_NUMS} sync $1 to $2 failed $NORMAL_COL"
exit 2
fi
}
convert_images() {
rm -rf ${IMAGES_DIR}; mkdir -p ${IMAGES_DIR}
for image in ${ALL_IMAGES}; do
let CURRENT_NUM=${CURRENT_NUM}+1
image_name=${image%%:*}
image_tag=${image##*:}
image_repo=${image%%/*}
skopeo_sync ${SOURCE_REGISTRY}/${image} ${IMAGES_DIR}/${image_repo}
manifest="${IMAGES_DIR}/${image}/manifest.json"
manifest_sha256=$(sha256sum ${manifest} | awk '{print $1}')
mkdir -p ${BLOBS_PATH}/${manifest_sha256:0:2}/${manifest_sha256}
ln -f ${manifest} ${BLOBS_PATH}/${manifest_sha256:0:2}/${manifest_sha256}/data
# make image repositories dir
mkdir -p ${REPO_PATH}/${image_name}/{_uploads,_layers,_manifests}
mkdir -p ${REPO_PATH}/${image_name}/_manifests/revisions/sha256/${manifest_sha256}
mkdir -p ${REPO_PATH}/${image_name}/_manifests/tags/${image_tag}/{current,index/sha256}
mkdir -p ${REPO_PATH}/${image_name}/_manifests/tags/${image_tag}/index/sha256/${manifest_sha256}
# create image tag manifest link file
echo -n "sha256:${manifest_sha256}" > ${REPO_PATH}/${image_name}/_manifests/tags/${image_tag}/current/link
echo -n "sha256:${manifest_sha256}" > ${REPO_PATH}/${image_name}/_manifests/revisions/sha256/${manifest_sha256}/link
echo -n "sha256:${manifest_sha256}" > ${REPO_PATH}/${image_name}/_manifests/tags/${image_tag}/index/sha256/${manifest_sha256}/link
# link image layers file to registry blobs dir
for layer in $(sed '/v1Compatibility/d' ${manifest} | grep -Eo "\b[a-f0-9]{64}\b"); do
mkdir -p ${BLOBS_PATH}/${layer:0:2}/${layer}
mkdir -p ${REPO_PATH}/${image_name}/_layers/sha256/${layer}
echo -n "sha256:${layer}" > ${REPO_PATH}/${image_name}/_layers/sha256/${layer}/link
ln -f ${IMAGES_DIR}/${image}/${layer} ${BLOBS_PATH}/${layer:0:2}/${layer}/data
done
done
}

convert_images
  • install.sh

使用这个脚本将 registry 存储中的镜像转换成 skopeo dir 的方式,然后再将镜像同步到 registry 中。

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
#!/bin/bash
REGISTRY_DOMAIN="harbor.k8s.li"
REGISTRY_PATH="/var/lib/registry"
# 切换到 registry 存储主目录下
cd ${REGISTRY_PATH}
gen_skopeo_dir() {
# 定义 registry 存储的 blob 目录 和 repositories 目录,方便后面使用
BLOB_DIR="docker/registry/v2/blobs/sha256"
REPO_DIR="docker/registry/v2/repositories"
# 定义生成 skopeo 目录
SKOPEO_DIR="docker/skopeo"
# 通过 find 出 current 文件夹可以得到所有带 tag 的镜像,因为一个 tag 对应一个 current 目录
for image in $(find ${REPO_DIR} -type d -name "current"); do
# 根据镜像的 tag 提取镜像的名字
name=$(echo ${image} | awk -F '/' '{print $5"/"$6":"$9}')
link=$(cat ${image}/link | sed 's/sha256://')
mfs="${BLOB_DIR}/${link:0:2}/${link}/data"
# 创建镜像的硬链接需要的目录
mkdir -p "${SKOPEO_DIR}/${name}"
# 硬链接镜像的 manifests 文件到目录的 manifest 文件
ln ${mfs} ${SKOPEO_DIR}/${name}/manifest.json
# 使用正则匹配出所有的 sha256 值,然后排序去重
layers=$(grep -Eo "\b[a-f0-9]{64}\b" ${mfs} | sort -n | uniq)
for layer in ${layers}; do
# 硬链接 registry 存储目录里的镜像 layer 和 images config 到镜像的 dir 目录
ln ${BLOB_DIR}/${layer:0:2}/${layer}/data ${SKOPEO_DIR}/${name}/${layer}
done
done
}
sync_image() {
# 使用 skopeo sync 将 dir 格式的镜像同步到 harbor
for project in $(ls ${SKOPEO_DIR}); do
skopeo sync --insecure-policy --src-tls-verify=false --dest-tls-verify=false \
--src dir --dest docker ${SKOPEO_DIR}/${project} ${REGISTRY_DOMAIN}/${project}
done
}
gen_skopeo_dir

从 registry 存储中 select 出镜像

先将镜像同步到一个 registry 中,再将镜像从 registry 存储中捞出来。这个 registry 可以当作一个镜像存储的池子,我们使用 Linux 中硬链接的特性将镜像"复制"一份出来,然后再打一个 tar 包。这样做的好处就是每次打包镜像的时候都能复用历史的镜像数据,而且性能极快。具体的原理可以参考我之前的博客《什么?发布流水线中镜像“同步”速度又提升了 15 倍 !

  • 先将镜像同步到一个固定的 registry 中
1
$ bash sync.sh docker.io localhost:5000
  • 再使用该脚本将镜像从 registry 存储中捞出来
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
#!/bin/bash
set -eo pipefail
IMAGES_LIST="$1"
REGISTRY_PATH="$2"
OUTPUT_DIR="$3"
BLOB_DIR="docker/registry/v2/blobs/sha256"
REPO_DIR="docker/registry/v2/repositories"
rm -rf ${OUTPUT_DIR}; mkdir -p ${OUTPUT_DIR}
for image in $(find ${IMAGES_LIST} -type f -name "*.list" | xargs grep -Ev '^#|^/' | grep ':'); do
image_tag=${image##*:}
image_name=${image%%:*}
tag_link=${REGISTRY_PATH}/${REPO_DIR}/${image_name}/_manifests/tags/${image_tag}/current/link
manifest_sha256=$(sed 's/sha256://' ${tag_link})
manifest=${REGISTRY_PATH}/${BLOB_DIR}/${manifest_sha256:0:2}/${manifest_sha256}/data
mkdir -p ${OUTPUT_DIR}/${BLOB_DIR}/${manifest_sha256:0:2}/${manifest_sha256}
ln -f ${manifest} ${OUTPUT_DIR}/${BLOB_DIR}/${manifest_sha256:0:2}/${manifest_sha256}/data
# make image repositories dir
mkdir -p ${OUTPUT_DIR}/${REPO_DIR}/${image_name}/{_uploads,_layers,_manifests}
mkdir -p ${OUTPUT_DIR}/${REPO_DIR}/${image_name}/_manifests/revisions/sha256/${manifest_sha256}
mkdir -p ${OUTPUT_DIR}/${REPO_DIR}/${image_name}/_manifests/tags/${image_tag}/{current,index/sha256}
mkdir -p ${OUTPUT_DIR}/${REPO_DIR}/${image_name}/_manifests/tags/${image_tag}/index/sha256/${manifest_sha256}
# create image tag manifest link file
echo -n "sha256:${manifest_sha256}" > ${OUTPUT_DIR}/${REPO_DIR}/${image_name}/_manifests/tags/${image_tag}/current/link
echo -n "sha256:${manifest_sha256}" > ${OUTPUT_DIR}/${REPO_DIR}/${image_name}/_manifests/revisions/sha256/${manifest_sha256}/link
echo -n "sha256:${manifest_sha256}" > ${OUTPUT_DIR}/${REPO_DIR}/${image_name}/_manifests/tags/${image_tag}/index/sha256/${manifest_sha256}/link
for layer in $(sed '/v1Compatibility/d' ${manifest} | grep -Eo '\b[a-f0-9]{64}\b' | sort -u); do
mkdir -p ${OUTPUT_DIR}/${BLOB_DIR}/${layer:0:2}/${layer}
mkdir -p ${OUTPUT_DIR}/${REPO_DIR}/${image_name}/_layers/sha256/${layer}
ln -f ${BLOB_DIR}/${layer:0:2}/${layer}/data ${OUTPUT_DIR}/${BLOB_DIR}/${layer:0:2}/${layer}/data
echo -n "sha256:${layer}" > ${OUTPUT_DIR}/${REPO_DIR}/${image_name}/_layers/sha256/${layer}/link
done
done

延伸阅读